Lithium-ion batteries provide a lightweight, efficient power source for electric vehicles (EV) and consumer electronics. Although their future is bright because they offer higher energy densities than other types of batteries, two important issues need to be addressed: performance and safety. Performance is especially important for electric vehicles, where a limited range of motion and battery wear over time can reduce the attractiveness of electric vehicles to consumers. Security is a major concern. Reports of battery fires in smartphones and electric vehicles have highlighted consumer safety concerns. Dongguan Large Electronics comes to add a new alternative to the range of lithium batteries on the market; it has a 10-year warranty and has unique characteristics in many aspects.
Lithium-ion Battery characteristics
Lithium technology, unlike other accumulator technologies, offers a high energy density, since it accumulates a lot of energy in a small space. This feature allows lithium-ion batteries to be small and light, which leads to a rethinking of the design of many of the machines that contain them, including trucks.
The energy consumption of this type of batteries is low, since lithium technology reduces energy losses and, therefore, its degree of total performance is high (87% of total performance). Also, the Li-Ion batteries do not need any maintenance, and the cells inside encapsulate, so they do not need to fill with water, nor do they allow incorrect handling. On the other hand, these accumulators have a long useful life, with an average life of 3,000 – 3,500 cycles, which is much higher than that of other types of batteries (which have an average duration of 1,200 cycles, for example).
Regarding charging, lithium-ion batteries do not require specific charging rooms, making it possible to gain a lot of space in the warehouse. They also admit bottle feeding, that is, that partial charges can carry out at any time without having to worry about the memory effect and the consequent degradation suffered by lead-acid batteries. Charging lithium-ion batteries is fast and effective, as they charge 50% in 30 minutes and need only 80 minutes to charge fully.
The safety of lithium batteries is also a very remarkable aspect; Li-Ion is a technology with a high degree of safety both for people who handle batteries and for the environment. These are batteries that are perfectly coordinated with the charger and the truck to offer an optimal solution for efficiency, safety, and comfort. The BMS provides continuous monitoring of individual battery cells and proceeds to shut down immediately in the event of an accident or collision.
On the other hand, lithium-ion batteries do not emit toxic or acid gases that can be detrimental to the health of operators and the environment, and with the low need for maintenance and the elimination of battery change (including battery stations). Cargo and changing facilities).
Because lithium technology is in an incipient stage of evolution, it currently does not offer the same possibilities that it may present in the future. As industrial manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries is standardized, the costs of battery cells will reduce, and the price of lithium batteries will decrease significantly. Also, its high energy density will allow new concepts of trucks in terms of dimensions and ergonomics.
Effect of Temperature on Lithium-ion Battery
It is a fact that batteries work best at room temperature, and any deviation towards hot and cold changes causes a variation in performance and longevity of the batteries. We must not forget that a battery works thanks to a chemical reaction, and, like any chemical reaction, temperature affects it substantially. Sugar dissolves better with heat, and its solubility decreases dramatically with cold.
As in this simple example, operating a battery at elevated temperatures improves performance by reducing internal resistance and accelerating the rate of chemical reaction, but such a condition shortens service life if allowed to continue for some time. A long period because under these conditions, Corrosion caused by the electrolyte (sulfuric acid) also accelerates. Conversely, cold temperatures increase internal resistance and decrease capacity. Batteries that would offer 100% capacity at 25 ° C will generally deliver only 60 percent at -18 °. The decrease in capacity is linear with temperature, as can see from the graph of a conventional battery. It not only occurs with lead-acid, but Li-ion also performs better at high temperatures than at low temperatures. Heat reduces the internal resistance but decreases battery longevity. Advances in technology allow us to see lithium batteries with even wider temperature ranges than lead.
It is the case of the Dongguan Large Electronics BATTERY with exceptional performance between -25 and +65 degrees. However, it is an exception within the “normality” of lithium that is between 0 and 50 degrees. Batteries typically achieve optimum service life by operating at or below 25 ° C. If, for example, an open lead-acid battery operates at 40 ° C the reduction in its useful life decreases a whopping 50%The performance of all battery chemicals drops dramatically at low temperatures. At -25 ° C nickel, lead, and some lithium batteries stop working. Although NiCd can drop to -40 ° C (-40 ° F), the allowed discharge is only 0.2C (5-hour rate). There are special cases such as Silicon batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries that can work down to -40 ° C, but only in discharge and a reduced discharge.
With lead-acid, we have the danger of freezing the electrolyte, which can break the container. Lead-acid batteries freeze more easily with little charge because the density of the electrolyte is closer to that of water. In full load states, there is no danger of freezing at least down to -20 ° C because the density is between 1.24 and 1.
Attention, therefore, if we use lead-acid batteries at very low temperatures since the drop in capacity due to the slow chemical reaction with cold can cause us to discharge the battery beyond what recommend, reversing the polarity of some cell and causing damage. Irreversible.
On the other hand, if our batteries work in very hot climates, the problem we will encounter will be a drastic decrease in their useful life and an increase in the delivered capacity that can exceed 20% of their nominal capacity.